Definition of anachronism
Anachronism is derived from the Greek word anachronistic, which means "against time." Therefore, an anachronism is an error of chronology or chronology in a literary work, that is, everything that is out of time and out of place is an anachronism.

Anachronisms appear in literature, painting and other works, and it's fascinating. Generally, they are considered errors that occur due to lack of research; For example, if a painter paints a portrait of Aristotle and shows it with a wristwatch, it would be an example of anachronism, as we all know. that wristwatches did not exist during Aristotle's time. Similarly, the presence of a wall clock on a stage depicting the interior of a Roman fort is an anachronism. )
The most famous example of anachronism comes from Act 2, Scene 1 of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar:

Brutus: “Peace! Count the clock. "
Cassius:" The clock has struck three. "

The time this piece represents is a point in history that goes back to 44 A. Mechanical clocks referred to in the dialogue above had not yet been invented at this point, but were present in Shakespeare's Die So mentioning a clock in this piece is an anachronism.

The same piece shows another example of anachronism in Act 1, Scene 2:

At Julius' time, Caesar did not wear a doublet, a tight-fitting jacket, but it was in Shakespeare's time Fashion among men, and therefore its use in the play is an anachronism.

Example 2: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
It is interesting to cite an example of anachronism in Shakespeare's play Hamlet. Hamlet, the protagonist, is the Prince of Denmark. In the play we are told that he attended the University of Halle-Wittenberg.

It is a historical fact that the aforementioned institute was established in 1502 A. The era described in the play was the 7th or 13th century Shakespeare did not bother much to correct the error, nor did people ever question the presence of the college mentioned above at the time of the character of Hamlet.

Example # 3: Macbeth (By William Shakespeare)
Yet another example of Shakespearean anachronism comes from Act 1, Scene 2 of his Macbeth play:

"Ross: That now
Sweno, The Norway 'king, longs composition:
Nor will we deign the burial of his men
Until he disbursed in the inch of Saint Colme
Ten thousand dollars for our general use.' '

The use of the word `` dollar' 'in the excerpt above is clearly an example of anachronism, as the dollar was not the unit of currency at the time the play is set. Shakespeare's lack of research prompted it to mention an element out of its time

Example # 4: Pharaoh (by Boleslaw Prus)
Another example of anachronism caused by lack of research is the novel Pharaoh, written by the Polish writer Boleslaw Prus. The setting for the novel is the regime of Ramses XII (1087-1085 BC) The writer mentions in his novel a prince The Harim Canal in the time of Ramses XII, and claims that it was the size of the Suez Canal. Careful investigation reveals that the canal existed prior to the aforementioned timeline of the narrative, and was much smaller than the Suez Canal.

Example # 5: Ode in a Greek urn (by John Keats)
An example of anachronism it can be traced back to John Keats' poem Oda in a Greek urn:

"The melodies heard are sweet, but the unheard
are sweeter: therefore they play soft flutes." at the time of Keats, "you". It is an anachronism, but its use here is intentional, since it is used to show the respect that the urn inspires in Keats; Therefore, it produces an artistic effect.

Function of anachronism
Generally, anachronism is considered an inadvertent error that is the result of a writer's carelessness and lack of research by the writer; however, it is sometimes used to produce a special artistic effect. in order to draw the attention of readers through proper use of anachronism.
Amplification Anacoluthon