A haiku poem has three lines, with the first and last lines having five moras and the middle line having seven lines. The pattern in this Japanese genre is 5-7-5. The mora is another name for a unit of sound that is like a syllable, although there is a difference. Since the Moras cannot be translated into English, they are modified and syllables are used instead. The lines of such poems rarely rhyme with each other.
Haiku became popular as tanka poems in Japan during the 9th and 12th centuries. Originally it was called "hokku" and Basho, Buson and Issa were the first three masters of the haiku genre. Haiku poetry is also full of metaphors and personifications. since haikus should be written on objective rather than subjective experiences. Several experiments have been conducted in this genre in English, as noted below.
"Autumn moonlight -
a worm quietly digs
in the chestnut tree."
(Autumn Moonlight, by Basho)
Characteristics of Haiku
Contains three lines
It has five moras (syllables) in the first line, seven in the second and five in the last line
Contains 17 syllables in total
A haiku poem does not rhyme
Haiku poems often have a kigo or seasonal reference.
Haiku poems generally deal with nature or natural phenomena
The poem has two juxtaposed themes that are divided into two contrasting parts .
In English, this division between two parts can be shown with a colon or a dash
Examples of Haiku in literature
Example # 1: Old Pond (by Basho)
a frog jumps
the sound of water
In this example, we can clearly see two contrasting parts of the poem; one is about a leaping frog and the second is about the sound of water. The syllable pattern also follows a 5-7-5 format.
Example # 2: Book of Haikus (by Jack Kerouac)
Snow on my shoe -
This haiku features an image in the first part of `` snow on my shoe ''. Also, there are two contrasting ideas that blend into each other, as the second part deals with nature. The syllable pattern is 5-7-5. The poet has tried to present a short story in this haiku.
Example # 3: Dust of Summers (By various poets)
Calling home -
the color of the mother's voice
before her words
(By Hilary Tann)
(By Ludmila Balabanova)
Through this technique, multiple senses are used to gather sensory information
Example # 4: Thirds (by Jeffrey Winke)
on the edge of the train yard
two coupled cars
Personality is also a defined personality trait haiku poetry. qualities to non-human things, although this is less frequent in haiku compared to metaphors. In this poem, the personification is very well done, therefore it allows the poem to speak for itself.
Example # 5: A heron leg (By Basho)
A heron leg
Add a long reed
The theme of this poem is to laugh at yourself. This is a perfect example of haiku poetry, as it is perfectly following the syllable counting pattern. It also adds a fun and ironic touch, since reality is the main aspect of this form of poetry.
Example # 6: Haiku selected (by Nick Virgilio)
out of water ...
out of himself
off the moon
Nick Virgilio is an American poet who is a great supporter of Japanese haiku. He has written 5 poems in the Japanese haiku style. -7-5 syllables when translated into Japanese. These examples of haiku poems are natural, mystical, and refined.
Function of Haiku
Haikus are short poems written about topics and things that readers can easily identify with. For example, seasons and animals are easily recognizable themes for readers. Haiku is generally written for realistic and objective reasons. s; however, haikus are also written for children. Sometimes two ideas are presented side by side in order to express meanings through internal comparison.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw