Definition of Nemesis
Nemesis is a literary device that refers to a situation of poetic justice, where good characters are rewarded for their virtues and bad characters are punished for their vices.

The term nemesis comes from Nemesis, the goddess of revenge in Greek mythology. and the divine retribution sought against those guilty of arrogance. In a general sense, nemesis refers to an indomitable rival, or an inescapable situation that causes misery and death. For example, he may have found his nemesis at school: a child who is no more capable than you, but who somehow always finishes before you on school exams, which makes you frustrated.

Examples of nemesis In Literature
We find several examples of nemesis in both ancient and modern literature. Let's take a look at a few:

Example # 1: Oedipus Rex (by Sophocles)
In Sophocles' famous Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex, King Oedipus's nemesis is his arrogance or excessive pride in him. proud that he isn't even scared to defy the gods' prophecies. We see that the king ends up doing what he fears and tries to avoid.

The Oracle of Delphi tells him that he will kill his father and marry his mother. To defy the prophecy of the gods, he leaves Corinth and travels to Thebes. On his way, he kills an old man in a fight. He later marries the queen of Thebes when she ascends the throne, after liberating the city from a deadly sphinx.

It can be argued that Oedipus commits all these sins in complete ignorance, but he deserves retribution because he is so puffed up with pride that he is not even afraid to try to rebel against his fate. Therefore, his nemesis is his arrogance. His nemesis was his pride in his erudition and his overly ambitious nature. Overcome by his irresistible desire, he sells his soul to Lucifer, signing a contract with his blood. He challenges Christianity by learning the art of black magic and, consequently, paying for his arrogance and pride in it. When the time mentioned in the contract with the devil runs out, the devil takes his soul to hell, where he suffers eternal damnation.

Example # 3: Hamlet (by William Shakespeare)
We Find two examples of nemesis in Shakespeare's Hamlet: Hamlet and Hamlet's indecision. Hamlet acts as a nemesis for Claudius, who kills Hamlet's father and marries his mother. Claudio's wickedness demands immediate retribution. The ghost of Hamlet's dead father appears to him and convinces him to get revenge. He finds Claudio as the real murderer, and after much indecisive thought kills him.

indecision. He is unable to make up his mind about the dilemma he faces. He reveals his state of mind in the following lines in Act 3, Scene 1 of the play:

“To be or not to be - that's the question:
If it is more noble in mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune
O take up arms Against a sea of ​​anguish
And opposing to end it. Die, sleep ... ”

he wants revenge on the murderer of his father, Claudio, but destroys his own life by postponing the act while looking for evidence to validate his action. However, in the process, he ruins his relationship with his mother and sends Ofelia into such a depressed state that she commits suicide.

Example # 4: Frankenstein (By Mary Shelley)
In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, protagonist Victor exhibits hubris on his adventure to become a unique scientist. After years of experimentation, he succeeds by creating a "monster", which he calls "Frankenstein." Ironically, what he considers to be his supreme invention demonstrates his nemesis. Frankenstein eventually becomes the source of Victor's disaster, punishing him justly for his excessive ambition. The nemesis acts as a source of punishment for arrogant and evil characters on universal moral grounds. Evil and wicked individuals must be punished for their wickedness.

Additionally, he imparts a moral lesson to readers to develop and refine the characters, in order to ensure they eliminate certain flaws that may become his nemesis in the future.
Naturalism Neologism