An error is a false argument that depends on an unsound or illogical assertion. There are many examples of error that we can find in everyday conversations.
Types of Error
Here are some well-known types of error that can arise when making an argument:
Call for Ignorance occurs when one person feels another person's lack of information used on a given topic as evidence that their own argument is correct.
Application to Authority
This type of error is also known as "Argumentum Verecundia" (argument out of modesty). To focus on the merits of an argument, the argumentator will try to to append his argument to a person of power or authority in order to give his argument trustworthiness.
Appeal to popular opinion
This type of appeal is when someone asserts that a thought or belief is correct as it is the matter on which the general population accesses pts.
Associa tion Fallacy
Sometimes this is referred to as “guilt by belonging”. This happens when someone associates a particular thought or problem with something or someone negative in order to infer the guilt of another person.
Attack on the person
Also called "argumentum ad hominem" (argument against the men), this is a common one Error used in debates in which a person replaces a refutation with a personal insult.
Beggen the question
The conclusion of a dispute is accepted as an explanation of the investigation itself.
This error is also known as the "circulus in" probando. This mistake is made when an argument gets its evidence from an element within the argument itself rather than from an external source.
Relationship Implies Cause
Also known as "cum hoc ergo propter hoc", this fallacy is a deception in which the individual makes the claim connects two opportunities that occur one after the other and accepts that one created or caused the other.
False Dilemma / Dichotomy
Sometimes referred to as "bifurcation", this type of error occurs when someone presents their reasoning in such a way that only two are left conceivable alternatives are left.
This is a fallacy where someone confirms a conclusion that does not follow from the suggestions or facts.
This error occurs when one asserts that an exceptionally small movement inevitably leads to large and often ridiculous conclusions vorruft.
This fallacy can also be used incorrectly to draw conclusions that are strange. Syllogism error is a wrong argument because it implies a wrong conclusion.
Examples of error in the literature
To better understand the different types of error, let's look at the following examples of error:
Example 1: Appeal to ignorance
“You can there is no evidence of Martians not living in caves on the Martian surface, so it is reasonable for me to accept that there are. "
Example 2: Appeal to Authority
" Well, Isaac Newton trusted alchemy, do you suppose you know more than Isaac Newton? ”
Example 3: Appeal to Popular Opinion
“ Lots of people bought this collection so it must be great. "
Example 4: Association Fallacy
" Hitler was a vegetarian, so I don't trust vegans. "
Example 5: Attacking the person
" Don't listen to Eddie's claims about teaching, he's a Simpleton. "
Example 6: imploring question
" If the neighbor didn't take my newspaper, who did it? "(This accepts that the newspaper was really stolen.) .
Example No. 7: Circular argument
" I accept that Frosted Flakes
Example no. 8: Relationship implies cause
"I saw a Jaybird and ten minutes later I crashed my car. Jaybirds are really unlucky."
Example 9: Wrong dilemma / dichotomy
"If If you don't vote for this candidate, you have to be a communist. ”
Example 10: Illogical conclusion
“ All Dubliners are from Ireland. Ronan is not Dubliner so he is clearly not Irish. "
Example # 11: Slippery slope
" If we allow homosexuals to marry, what next? Allow people to marry their dogs? "
Example # 12: Syllogism fallacy, the bird in my cage is a raven."
Function of fallacy
Literary critics find the weaknesses of literary pieces by looking for fallacies within them. Because of this, there is a tendency for them to Critics distort the writer's intentions.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw