Definition of symbolism
Symbolism is the use of symbols to denote ideas and qualities by giving them symbolic meanings that differ from their literal meaning.

Symbolism can take various forms. In general, it is an object that represents another to give a very different meaning much deeper and more meaningful. However, sometimes an action, event, or word spoken by someone can have symbolic value. For example, “smile” is a symbol of friendship. Similarly, the action of someone smiling at you may symbolize the feeling of affection that person has for you.

Symbols change their meaning depending on the context in which they are used. For example, “a chain” can mean both “association” and “imprisonment”. The symbolic meaning of an object or an action is understood by when, where and how it is used. It also depends on who is reading the work.

Common examples of symbolism in everyday life
In our everyday life, we can easily identify objects that can be taken as examples of symbolism, such as the following:

The dove is a symbol of peace
A red rose, or the color red, represents love
Black is a symbol that represents evil or death.
A ladder can be a symbol of the connection between heaven and earth.
A broken mirror can symbolize separation. In Chinese culture, the color red symbolizes property and happiness.)
David stopped his car at the red signal (in other cultures, the color red is a symbol of blood, passion and danger).
The rebels raised a white flag to negotiate. (During war, the color white symbolizes peace with the enemy. Otherwise, it represents purity and life.)
The Red Cross works all over the world. (The symbol of the cross stands for Christianity, and the Red Cross in particular stands for help in times of need.)
The Muslim armed forces hoisted their flag with a crescent moon on it. (The crescent moon represents Islam.)
He turned green when he found a wallet. (Green color is often associated with greed, jealousy, and money matters.)
You dressed in black for your friend's funeral. (The color black is associated with death. )
The yellow boat went into the canal, to make the tourists happy. The color yellow is the symbol of deterioration and infidelity, as well as the symbol of freshness and happiness.)
she was disappointed when the mirror broke. a symbol of separation.)
He gave his wife a red rose on Valentine's Day. (The red rose is a symbol of love.)
After a long time, he saw a ray of light in the shape of the arrival of his brother. (The silver border / cloud covering symbolizes hope and optimism.)
You have a sixth sense like an owl (the owl symbolizes wisdom. )
You work like an ox. (The ox symbolizes hard work and perseverance.)
When he saw a bat in a dream, he became white with fear. (Bats are the symbol of death.)
Examples of Symbolism in Literature
To Develop Symbolism in His Work A writer uses other idioms such as metaphors, parables and allegories as tools. Some examples of symbolism in literature are given below with a brief analysis:

Example 1: As You Like It (by William Shakespeare)
We find symbolic value in Shakespeare's famous monologue in his play As you Like It:

“The whole world is one Stage,
And all men and women are just players;
They have their exits and their entrances;
And a man in his time plays many roles ”,

These lines are symbolic of the fact that men and women play different roles in the course of their lives:“ A stage ”here symbolizes the world, and“ player ”is a symbol for people.

Example 2: Ah Sunflower (By William Blake))
William Blake is symbolically in h is a poem Ah Sunflower. He says:

“Ah sunflower, tired of time,
Who is counting the steps of the sun? "The sun" symbolizes life. Therefore, these lines symbolically refer to her life cycle and her longing for a never-ending life.

Example # 3: Wuthering Heights (By Emily Bronte)
Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte presents almost every character, house, setting, and event in a symbolic perspective. The word "Borrascoso", which means "stormy", represents the wild nature of the inhabitants. The following lines allow us to see the symbolic nature of two characters:

“My love for Linton is like the foliage in the forest. Time will change it; I am well aware that winter changes trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath a source of little visible but necessary delight. "

The phrase “foliage of leaves” is symbolic of Linton's fertile and civilized nature. Rather, Heathcliff is compared to an "eternal rock", symbolizing his stark and unyielding nature.

Example # 4: Wild Asters (By Sara Teasdale)
Sara Teasdale in her poem Wild Asters develops a series of striking symbols:

“In the spring, I asked the daisies
If their words were true,
And the intelligent and lucid daisies
She always knew .

Now the fields are brown and barren,
Bitter blows of autumn,
And of all the stupid asters
Nobody knows. "

In the lines above," spring "and" daisies "are symbols of youth." Brown and sterile "are symbols of transition from youth. To old age. Also," Bitter Autumn "symbolizes death.

Example # 5: Rain (By William H. Davies)
" I hear leaves drinking rain;
I hear rich leaves at the top
Giving to the poor below
Drop after drop;
It's a sweet noise
These green leaves drinking close. ”

In this beautiful poem, William Davies, who has used the symbol of rain to show the different classes of society. He does this by describing how the upper leaves benefit from the rain first, and then transmit the rest to the lower leaves. In the same way, the rich pass the surplus profits to the poor.

Example 6: My heart leaps up when I see (by William Wordsworth)
“My heart leaps up when I see
A rainbow in the sky:
This is how it was when my life began;
So it is now, I am a man;
So be it when I get old ... ”

In this poem the poet uses the rainbow as a symbol of hope and general well-being throughout his life.

Example No. 7: XXIII, Crossing the nocturnal ferry alone (by A.Housman)
“Crossing alone night ferry
With the one coin for a fee,
Whoever is waiting on the Lethe quay,
Counting to find you? Not me. “

The poet used the symbol of a river to represent life and the past memories associated with it.

Function of symbolism
Symbolism gives a writer the freedom to add double levels of meaning to his work: a literal one that is self-evident and a symbolic one whose meaning goes far beyond deeper than literal. The symbolism therefore gives universality to the characters and subjects of a piece of literature. Symbolism in literature tends to interest readers when they have the opportunity to gain insight into the writer's thoughts, how he sees the world, and how he feels about common objects and actions that have wider implications.
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