Foucault presents possibly the best definition of discourse. He defines discourse as “thought systems made up of ideas, attitudes and actions, beliefs and practices that systematically construct the subjects and the worlds they speak of.”

It originally has roots in the Latin language. The term takes on slightly different meanings in different contexts. In literature, discourse means language or writing, usually longer than sentences that formally deal with a particular topic. In other words, discourse is the holistic representation of language in its language, while an intellectual investigation is conducted in a particular area or area such as theological discourse or cultural discourse.

General classifications of the discourse
The discourse can be divided into four main categories:

The main focus this type of discourse is aimed at bringing the audience's attention to the topic of discussion. Definitions and comparative analysis of different ideas and beliefs are examples of the presentation of discourses.

Narration is a type of discourse that relies on stories, folklore or a drama as a medium of communication.
Stage play, history and folklore are examples of narrative discourses.

This type includes the description of something in terms of the senses. The descriptive discourse enables the audience to develop a mental picture of what is being discussed. Descriptive parts of the novel or essay are descriptive examples of discourse.

This type of discourse is based on valid logic and, through correct thinking, tries to motivate the audience. Examples of argumentative discourse are lectures, essays and prose.

Examples of discourse in literature
Poetic discourse
Poetic discourse is a type of literary conversation that focuses on expressing feelings, ideas, conceptions, events and places through specific rhymes and rhythms. Poetic discourse uses common words in an engaging way to represent feelings and emotions. The mechanism of poetic discourse involves certain steps emanating from various sources, then entering the mental process, mental realization and finally into a finished product as poetry.

Exa mple # 1: A Character (by William Wordsworth)
“I wonder how nature could ever find space
For so many strange contrasts in a human face:
There are thoughts and no thoughts, and there is pallor and bloom
And bustle and indolence, pleasure and darkness. ”

Expressive discourse
Expressive discourse does not involve the presentation of facts or figures the motivation of others, but rather is a reflection of our emotions that form the basis of our expressions. This is a form of basic or introductory discourse and is beneficial for beginners in the field of literature. It is mainly concerned with generating ideas without a specific source. Examples include academic papers and diaries.

Example 2: The Diary of Samuel Pepys (From Samuel Pepys, 1660)
“We met very early this morning in our office to pick the twenty-five ships to be paid first. Afterwards to Westminster and had dinner with Mr Dalton in his office where we had a great meal but as our papers weren't ready we couldn't finish our business until the following Monday. Mr Dalton and I across water to our landlord Vanly, with whom we agree on Dalton… ”

Transactional Discourse
The main aim of this type of discourse is to get the message across in such a way that it is clearly understood without confusion. Whatever is said has no ambiguity - everything is clear to the reader. Usually this type of discourse is in an active voice. Examples include physician-written instructions, guidelines, manuals, privacy policies, and patient instructions.

Function of speech
The role of speech is difficult to ignore in our daily intellectual activities as it provides a basis for comparative analysis and framing our perceptions about For example, two competing speeches about the civil war in Syria today can be used to qualify the war as "war against dictatorship" or "war against imperialism." On the other hand, it could be considered as "war against Islam" or "war for humanity". Therefore, both discourses provide a different style, vocabulary and presentation, which are required to convey the respective ideas to a specific audience.

According to Jacques Lucan and Ferdinand de Saussure, language (discourse) is the main force behind of all kinds of expressions. human activities and changes in the social fabric; while the modernists attribute the discourse to development and progress. Another important function of discourse is to generate and preserve the truth as argued by postmodernist theories.
Dilemma Dissonance