Derived from a Greek word, logos means "logic". Logos is a literary medium that can be described as a statement, phrase, or argument to convince or persuade the target audience through the use of reason or logic. In everyday life, arguments depend on logos, pathos and ethos. Let's look at logos through examples in the literature and debates.
Classification of Logos
Before you learn what logos are, you must first understand the following two categories: However, inductive reasoning requires reliable and convincing evidence presented in support of the point .
Deductive reasoning - Deductive reasoning involves generalizing in the early stages and then moving on to the specific case. The beginning generalization must be based on reliable evidence to support this the end.
In some cases, both methods are used to convince the audience nce.
Examples of Logos in Literature
Example 1: Political Ideals (by Bertrand Russell)
“The wage system made people believe that a man needs work.
That is of course absurd. What he needs is the goods that are produced by
work, and the less labor it takes to produce a certain amount of goods,
the better ... But due to our economic system ... where a better system only increases the Wages or a reduction in working hours
without a corresponding reduction in wages. “
In this paragraph Russell presents arguments for the unjust distribution of wealth and its consequences. He responds by logic, stating that one reason for this injustice is due to evil. He deduces from this that capitalism and the wage system should be abolished in order to improve the economic system.
Example 2: The Art of Rhetoric (by Aristotle)
"All human beings are mortal.
Socrates is a man.
Therefore Socrates is mortal."
Aristotle uses syllogistic arguments here, some of the arguments or allegations not being given. Since Socrates is a man; therefore he is mortal; All people are so mortal. Eventually, they will die. This is the logic presented here.
Example # 3: From Studies (By Francis Bacon)
“Reading makes the whole man; conference with a clever man; and write an exact man. ”
This example is accurate, precise, and compact with arguments, as well as a deduction or conclusion. At the beginning, Bacon points out what reading, lecture (discussion) and writing are, simultaneously giving the logic and reasoning for reading, writing or lecture.
Example # 4: From Studies (By Francis Bacon)
“Cunning men condemn studies, simple men admire and wise use them; because they don't teach their own use; but that is wisdom without them, and above them, gained by observation. ”
This is also a perfect example of logos. Here, Bacon discusses the question of theories versus skills. There is a clash between reading and not reading. reader is better than those who cling to what they already know. He uses the logic that reading is necessary because it improves skills.
Example 5: Othello (by William Shakespeare)
“Oh, be careful, sir, of jealousy!
It is the green-eyed monster that mocks itself
The meat it feeds on ...
Whoever is sure of his fate does not love his unjust humbly ask for forgiveness
For too much love for you ... “
In this excerpt, Iago convinces Othello with logic and Reasoning and makes him doubt that there is a secret relationship between Desdemona and Cassio.
Logos Meaning and Function
Logos is used when citing facts in addition to statistical, literal, and historical analogies. It is something through which internal thoughts are logically presented in order to convince the audience. Rationality and logic are highly valued in society, and this type of belief approach is generally valued more than a speaker's or character's appeals to the audience. On the other hand, scientific reasoning and formal logic may not be suitable for the general audience as they are only better suited to scientific professionals.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw