Definition of paradox
The term paradox comes from the Greek word paradoxon, which means "contrary to expectations, existing beliefs or perceived opinions."

This is a statement that seems to contradict itself or to be silly, but that may include a latent truth. It is also used to illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to accepted traditional ideas. A paradox is often used to make a reader think about an idea in an innovative way.

Examples of paradox
The friend of your enemy is your enemy.
youth should be wasted on the young. "- George Bernard Shaw
Wise fool
The truth is honey, which is bitter.
" I can resist anything but temptation. "- Oscar Wilde
From The examples of paradoxes above, we can say that the paradox creates a humorous effect on readers due to its ridiculousness.

Examples of Paradox in Literature
In literature, paradox is not just a clever or comical statement or use of words. Paradox has serious implications because it makes statements that often summarize the main themes of the work in which they are used. Let's analyze some paradoxical examples from some famous literary works:

Example 1: Animal Farm (by George Orwell)
In George Orwell's Animal Farm, part of the basic rule is this statement:

"All animals are the same, but some are the same as others."

This However, statement doesn't seem to make sense. On closer inspection, however, it becomes clear that Orwell is pointing to a political truth. The government in the novel claims that everyone is equal, but it has never treated everyone equally. It is the concept of equality in this paradox that is opposed to the common belief in equality.

Example 2: Hamlet (by William Shakespeare)
In William Shakespeare's famous play Hamlet, the protagonist Hamlet says: 4 0a4
“I have to be cruel to be kind

This announcement doesn't seem to make sense. How can an individual treat others kindly even if they are cruel? However, Hamlet is talking about his mother and how he intends to kill Claudio in order to avenge his father's death.

This act of Hamlet will be a tragedy for his mother, who is married to Claudio. Hamlet does not want his mother to be loved.

Example # 3: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
By William Shakespeare The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet:

“The earth that is the mother of nature is her grave;
What is her grave buried in her, that is Rainbow in her womb ...? ”

The contradictory ideas that the earth is the birthplace and a graveyard make these lines paradoxical.

In his short handwriting My heart leaps when I contemplate, William Wordsworth recalls the joys of his past and says:

" The child is the father of the man ... "

This statement has a seemingly incorrect assumption, but when we look deeply into its meaning, we see the truth. The poet says that childhood experiences become the basis for all adult events. A person's childhood shapes his life and consequently "begets" or creates the adult adult. , "The child is the father of the man."

Function of paradox
The above reading may raise the question: "Why is paradox used when a message can be conveyed in a direct and simple way?" The answer lies in the nature and purpose of literature. One function of literature is to make readers enjoy reading. Readers enjoy more when they extract hidden meanings from writing rather than something that is presented to them in a simple way. Therefore, the main purpose of a paradox is to give pleasure.

In poetry, the use of paradox is not limited to mere wit and pleasure; rather, it becomes an integral part of poetic diction. Poets usually make use of paradox to create a remarkable thought or image from the words. thoughts to the immediate subject. The paradox in most poems normally strives to create feelings of intrigue and interest in the minds of readers, to make them think more deeply and more strongly to enjoy the real message of the poem.
Parable Paralipsis