Definition of utopia
The literary term utopia denotes an illusory place that projects the notion of a perfect society to the reader. Here, the "perfect society" refers to the ideal conditions achieved within the material world, as opposed to the expected idealism of the future life in Christianity. Also, the citizens who preside over such utopias are carriers of a perfect moral code, or the less, every violator of the moral code is severely punished. A utopian society is one in which all social ills have been cured.

Utopia and heterotopia
An An important distinction that must be appreciated is that between an imaginary utopia and a living heterotopia; however, the terms should not be treated as opposites, but rather denote an intermediate experience, with both real and unreal instances. Foucault envisions that heterotopies include various utopian aspects; However, the relationship between these two notions has tended to be ignored in interpretation

Description of utopian literature
A writing that deals with the description of a perfect society in the physical world, as opposed to the perfection of the afterlife, it is considered utopian literature. The original motifs behind utopian novels were political, social, and philosophical. Plato's Republic, written around 380 BC, is generally considered the earliest example of utopia in history.

Some traces of utopian elements can be found in Arthurian literature, in the idealization of King Arthur's court at Camelot, but the trend followed by medieval poets was to idealize an imaginary past, rather than use hypothetical utopias for the purpose of criticizing political institutions and suggesting alternatives. It was around the time of Sir Thomas More's book Utopia, written in 1516, that the notion of utopia was practically manifested, and its name for the imaginary realm became the new name for the genre of writing.

Examples of Utopia show common characteristics, including the following:

A detailed description of the geographic landscape, often given by native guides from
The storyteller or protagonist of the story is a stranger to utopian society
He is very skeptical of political, social issues modern economic, economic, or ethical standards of society.
One of the common misunderstandings about utopian models is that they serve to project a better way of life. Rather, the rationale behind such literature is to help the reader visualize the problems, paradoxes, or failures rooted within such a political framework.

Examples of utopia in literature
The examples cited below describe various utopia scenarios:

Description of the Republic of Christianopolis, by Johannes Valentinus Andreae, 1619
by Tommaso Campanella, 1602
New Atlantis, by Francis Bacon, 1627
Nova Solyma, The Ideal City, by Samuel Gott, circa 1649
The Law of Liberty on a Platform, by Gerrard Winstanley , 1652
Looking Back, by Edward Bellamy, 1888
News from Nowhere, by William Morris, 1890
Free Land: A Social Anticipation, by Theodor Hertzka, 1891
A Modern Utopia, by H. Wells, 1905
Function of Utopia
Over time, the vision that embodies the concept of utopia has undergone radical changes. Events such as war, church reform, revolution and economic change have contributed to the construction of a new type of utopia.

The term utopia formulated new forms and new prefixes, each type having its own function and use. They are generally used as a means of building an organized society in the mind of the reader. The author uses the tool to highlight the discrepancies that prevail within an existing political and legal domain frame.

A utopian society is designed to present the reader with the idea of ​​an ideal sociopolitical culture. The writer presents his audience with a standard example of a socially and morally appropriate society using Utopia They recognize the various shortcomings of their existing societal framework.

Utopia is a tool to expose the shortcomings prevalent in an Exi In addition, the tool has been widely used by writers, who wanted to influence the conscience of readers. The writer uses utopia to portray a scenic picture in the eyes of the reader to make him fully appreciate the various different factors that contribute to the failure of the existing society. It is about building a standard socio-political society in the mind of the reader, in order to criticize current legal norms.
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