Theme definition
Theme is defined as a main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work, which can be expressed directly or indirectly.

Major and minor themes
Major and minor themes are two types of themes that appear in literary works. A main theme is an idea. that a writer repeats in his literary work, making it the most significant idea in the work, while a minor theme refers to an idea that appears briefly in a work, giving way to another minor theme. Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" are marriage, love, friendship, and affection. The entire narrative revolves around the main theme of marriage. Her minor themes are love, friendship, affection, etc.

Difference between a topic and a subject
It is important not to. confuse a subject of a literary work with its subject. The theme is a theme that acts as the basis of a literary work, while a theme is an opinion expressed on the subject. For example, a writer may choose a t of war topic for his story, and the topic may be his personal opinion that war is a curse on humanity. It is usually up to the reader to examine the subject of a literary work by analyzing characters, plot, and other literary means.

Presentation of Topics
A writer presents topics in a literary work in a number of ways. A writer can express a subject through the feelings. Similarly, subjects are presented through thoughts and conversations of various characters. In addition, the main character's experiences during the course of a literary work give us an idea of ​​their subject. After all, the actions and events that take place in a narrative are important in determining its subject.

Short examples of the subject
When the astronaut landed on the moon, he felt lonely.The earth was breathtakingly beautiful.
(Subject of loneliness)
The spacemen traveled to the moon when their spaceship suddenly ran out of fuel. They were all scared to learn that they couldn't return to earth and could only land on the moon.
(Subject of Fear)
The bus was traveling at great speed when it was stopped by a gang of robbers. Passengers were ordered to get off and leave their valuable belongings on the bus.
(Subject of fear)
The wedding ceremony was All the major people in town were invited, the reason the celebration was excellent.
(Subject of happiness)
Once the When the clock struck 12 noon, the cheers began. It traveled east to west on the first day of the year.
(Subject of congratulations)
The religious leader led a huge gathering of devotees and prayed with the utmost humility.
(Subject of religiosity)
All family members were dressed in black and had somber faces . They attended the funeral service of their deceased relative.
(Subject of Darkness)
The cricket match reached a climax and fans of both teams shouted their support. It was an excellent game
(Theme of joy)
The teacher said that she expected all her students to pass with good grades
(Theme of optimism)
The father of the slow student said he had no false hopes about the future of his son .
(Theme of pessimism)
The immigrant looked around to speak to someone, but did not find anyone who spoke their language. He felt claustrophobic and desolate.
(Theme of hopelessness)
Only workers were working on Labor Day
(Theme irony)
The conference was in full swing, with academics giving informed lectures on various topics. The public enjoyed it immensely
(Learning Topic)
The politician was giving a speech about the need for peace between two neighboring states. peace, they could achieve what is not possible through war.
(Theme of peace)
The general ordered his troops to open fire on the enemy and kill each and every soldier of the combatants
(Theme of war)
Examples of themes in literature
Example # 1: Theme of love and friendship
Love and friendship are Themes that occur frequently in literature. They generate emotional twists and turns in a narrative, and can lead to a variety of endings: happy, sad, or bittersweet. The following are famous literary works with themes of love and friendship:

Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte
Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoi
Sense and Sensibility by Jane Austen
Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen
Example 2: War Topic
The topic of war has been studied in literature since ancient times. Literary woks using this theme can either glorify or criticize the idea of ​​war. Most recent literary works portray war as a curse to humanity due to its suffering. Some famous examples are:

Iliad and Odyssey by Homer
War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy
Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway
Arms and the man by Bernard Shaw
A Band of Brothers: Stories from Vietnam by Walter McDonald
Example 3: Crime and Mystery Themes
Crime and Mystery are used in detective novels. These narratives also include subtopics such as "Crimes cannot be hidden," "Evil is always punished," and others. Some well-known examples of crime and mystery topics are:

The murders on Rue Morgue by Edgar Allan Poe
Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle
Bleak House by Charles Dickens
Murder on the Orient Express by Agatha Christi e
Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown
Example 4: Vengeance is a theme
another recurring theme found in many popular literary works. A character encounters certain circumstances that alert them to their need for revenge. The result of his action is often bitter, but sometimes bitter examples are:

Hamlet and Macbeth by William Shakespeare
The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas
The girl who kicked the hornet's nest by Stieg Larsson
A Time to Kill by John Grisham
Example 5: Annabel Lee (From Edgar Lee Allan Poe)
“I was a child and she was a child A short excerpt from Poe's poem shows the theme of love.

Example # 6: The Charge of the Light Brigade (By Alfred Tennyson)
“Half a league, half a league,
Half league forward,
All in Death Valley
Ridden all six hundred
'Forward, Light Brigade!
This excerpt from a Tennyson poem has two intertwined themes: War is the main theme of the poem, which naturally leads to death, while the theme of death is interwoven with the theme of war.

Theme function
The theme is an element of a story that unites several essential elements of a narrative. It is often a truth that exhibits universality and is true for people of all cultures. the conflicts, experiences, discoveries and emotions of the main character, as derived from them. Through themes, a writer tries to give his readers an idea of how the world works or how he sees human life.
Attitude Dialogue