In rhetoric, ethos represents credibility, or an ethical appeal, which implies the persuasion of the character involved.
Origin of Ethos
The term has its roots in Aristotle's "ingredients of persuasion" or "appeals". He divides the means of persuasion into three distinct categories: ethos, pathos, and logos. He says in his treatise On Rhetoric:
“Of the modes of persuasion provided by the spoken word, there are three types. […] Persuasion is achieved through the personal character of the speaker when the speech is said in such a way as to make us believe it is credible. ”
It is a means of convincing others of the character or credibility of the persuader. It is natural for us to accept the credibility of the people we have reverence for. .
In an argument, it is of the utmost value for a speaker or writer to instill in listeners and readers the idea that is worth listening to. In other words, the credibility of a speaker or writer depends on their authority on the topic, as well as how much they like them and consider themselves worthy of respect.
Argument from Ethos and Ad Hominem
In an attempt to confirm their credibility, a writer or speaker will use a typical type of argument called a hominem argument. “It is an 'against the man' argument that undermines the ethos of a speaker or writer in opposition. It is a strategy in which a speaker or writer attacks the character or personality of an opposing speaker or writer rather than too The question of his point of view. However, such an argument is generally considered to be a logical error. Nonetheless, it can prove extremely successful and is quite common in politics.
Examples of ethos in literature
Classification of ethos can be based on its position, such as the The following examples of ethos.
The choice of words can confirm the ethos with customers:
"Our expertise in roofing jobs is not only proven by our 100 years of experience in the business and our qualified staff technicians, but also in the decades of satisfied customers, who expect only the best n.
The advertisers are trying to build their credibility with their customers by repeatedly mentioning the cost experience in the field and the technical expertise of their staff.
"Doctors all over the world recommend this type of treatment."
People tend to to believe the opinion of doctors about medical treatments.
Example # 3:
“John is an expert in forensics and ballistics and has worked for the federal government for many years. If anyone is qualified to determine the murder weapon, it is him. "
Here, John is presented as the most qualified person to determine the murder weapon, based on his working spirit for the federal government as a forensic and ballistics expert.
Example # 4:
“If his years as a soldier taught him something, it is that precaution is the best policy in this type of situation ”.
The opinion of a soldier is more credible than the opinion of a common man in violent situations.
Example # 5:
"My three decades of experience in public service, my tireless commitment to the people of this community, and my willingness to cross the aisle and cooperate with the opposition, make me the ideal candidate for your mayor."
The public can be easily persuaded by giving them some insight into a candidate's past experience, past actions, and preferred policies.
Example # 6:
These examples in television advertisements are not just expressed in words. For example, in a commercial for t oothpaste, an actor puts on a white lab coat and talks about how that particular toothpaste is good for the teeth. By donning a white lab coat, an actor looks like a doctor and thus gains credibility as people consider a doctor's comments to be more
The role of Ethos
The above explanations and ethos examples reveal the following facts about this device:
Ethos confirms the credibility of a writer or speaker and thus becomes trustworthy in the eyes of listeners and readers who, as a result, are persuaded by the arguments.
The ethics of a speaker or writer is largely created by the choice of words they choose to convince listeners or readers.
Being an expert on the subject determines her ethics.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw