Syntax Definition
Syntax is a set of rules in a language. It dictates how words from different parts of speech come together to convey a complete thought.

Syntax and diction
Syntax and diction are closely related. Diction refers to the choice of words in a certain language. situation, while the syntax determines how the chosen words are used to form a sentence. Most of the time, adopting a complex diction means a complex syntactic structure of sentences, and vice versa. In combination, syntax and diction help writers develop tone, mood, and atmosphere in a text, in addition to evoking the interest of readers.

Examples of syntax in literature
Syntax in poetry
The general order of the words of a sentence in English is Subject + Verb + Object In poetry, however, the order of the words can be changed to achieve certain artistic effects, such as producing rhythm or melody in the lines, achieving emphasis and enhancing the connection between two words . The unique syntax used in poetry makes it different. renting prose Let us consider the following syntax examples:

Example # 1: Beyond decoration (By P. Kavanagh)
In casual conversation, we can simply say, "I can't go out" to convey our inability to go out. Kavanagh's poem Beyond Decoration is not based solely on the statement of a prosaic "I can't go out". Rather, he shifts the syntax and says "Go out, I can't", which emphasizes the inability to go out that is conveyed by the word "can't".

Example 2: Lycidas (by John Milton)
Similarly, John Milton shifts words frequently in his poems. Let us analyze lines from his poem Lycidas:

"You, shepherd, you the forests and desert caves,
With wild thyme and the gadding grapevine,
And all their echoes mourn"

The modified word order in the above lines are object + subject + subject's complement + Verb.

Syntax in prose
Syntax also affects the type of prose text. It enhances its meaning and adds to its tone. Speed, determination, and speed are added to a text by using short sentences, clauses, and sentences. In a text where the subject is serious and requires contemplation, long, winding sentences are used to slow the pace of a prose text. The following two syntax examples show different uses of the syntax:

Example # 3: The Joy Luck Club (by Amy Tan)
"That night, I sat on Tyan-yu's bed and waited for him to touch me. But he did not do it. I was relieved. "

Here, Amy Tan uses short sentences to communicate in a powerful and concise way.

Example 4: Saying Goodbye to Guns (by Ernest Hemingway)
" They left me alone and I lay in bed reading the newspapers for a while, the news from the front and the list of dead officers with their decorations and then reached down and lifted the bottle of Cinzano and held it directly on my stomach, the cool glass against my stomach, and I took small drinks that made rings on my stomach when I held the bottle there between the drinks and watched it get dark outside over the rooftops of the city. “

Ernest Hemingway uses long and complex structures to emphasize the laziness of his character.

Syntax in Shakespeare
Writing With his plays and sonnets in iambic pentameter, Shakespeare usually reversed the general order of the English sentences by putting verbs at the end of sentences.

: Romeo and Juliet (by William Shakespeare)
“What l Break out of that window? "

Instead of using the general expression" What light breaks out of that window ", Shakespeare emphasized its importance by using a different syntax.

Example 6: Richard III (by William Shakespeare)
In Richard III, Shakespeare intentionally reverses the word order of a sentence, which contains a general description: “And all the clouds that descended on our house and were buried in the deep bosom of the ocean”, in:

“And all the clouds that descended on our house are buried in the deep bosom of the ocean. “

Function of Syntax
Conveying meaning is one of the main functions of syntax. In literature, writers use syntax and diction to achieve certain artistic effects such as mood and tone. Like diction, syntax aims to influence readers and express the writer's attitude.
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