Hubris Definition
Hubris is extreme pride and arrogance of a character that ultimately causes his downfall.

Hubris is a typical flaw in the personality of a character who occupies a powerful position. As a result, he overestimates his abilities so much that he loses touch with reality. A hubris character tries to break normal human boundaries and violates moral codes. Examples of hubris can be found in main characters in tragic games.

Definition of hubris by Aristotle
Aristotle mentions hubris in his book Rhetoric:

“Hubris is about doing and saying things that shame the victim ... just for pleasure. Retribution is not hubris, but revenge ... Young men and the rich are Hubristic because they think they are better than other people. “

Aristotle believed that people would commit crimes. Like sexual misconduct and mistreatment of others. Just to fulfill their basic desire to feel superior to others.

The concept of arrogance in Greek mythology
Similarly, Greek mythology describes arrogance as a great crime that demands severe punishment. Generally, the Greek idea of ​​arrogance is that a character in an authoritarian position becomes so proud of his exceptional qualities that he forms an illusion that he is equal to the gods, and eventually tries to challenge the gods and his destiny.

Examples of arrogance in Literature
Hubris's examples are also examples of "hamartia", a tragic failure in a character that causes his tragic downfall.

Example # 1: Oedipus Rex (By Sophocles)
In Sophocles' famous Greek tragedy Oedipus the King, the character of King Oedipus provides a classic example of a character suffering from arrogance or excessive pride. Due to his arrogance, he tried to defy the prophecies of the gods, but ended up doing what he most feared and was warned against. The Oracle of Delphi told him that he would kill his father and marry his mother .

Overcoming by hubr That is, Oedipus tries to avoid him by leaving Corinth, traveling to Thebes; On the way to the neighboring city, he kills an old man in a feud, and then marries the queen of Thebes, as he was appointed king of the city after her death. He saved the city from a deadly sphinx. It can be said that he commits all these sins in complete ignorance, but he nevertheless deserves punishment because he became so proud that he has no qualms about trying to rebel against his fate. because of his arrogance.

Example # 2: Paradise Lost (by John Milton)
In his famous epic Paradise Lost, John Milton portrays Satan as a character suffering from arrogance, who loses his glorious position by yielding to his excessive pride. Although he failed miserably, his pride endures:

"It is better to reign in hell than to serve in heaven."

The reason for his desire to rebel against his creator stems from his reluctance to accept authority. of God and His Son because he believed that angels are “self-begotten, self-raised” and thus bring their ruin by being expelled from Paradise.

Example # 3: Doctor Faust (By Christopher Marlowe)
An example of arrogance in Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus". Faust's arrogance and extreme pride in his erudition and his irresistible desire to be superior to all other men of his time force him to sell his soul to "Lucifer" by signing a contract with his blood. he earns the art of black magic and challenges Christianity. Ultimately, he has to pay for his arrogance and pride. The demons take his soul to hell and he suffers eternal damnation.

Example # 4: Frankenstein (By Mary Shelley)
Similarly, "Victor," the protagonist of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein," shows arrogance in his effort to become an incomparable scientist. He creates a "monster" called "Frankenstein" that eventually becomes the cause of In literature, the portrayal of arrogant characters serves to achieve a moralistic end, which are eventually punished, thus giving a moral lesson to the audience and readers for that they feel motivated to improve their characters by eliminating the defects they may cause. Cause a tragedy in their lives. When witnessing a tragic hero suffering due to his arrogant actions, the audience or readers may fear that the same fate will befall them if they indulge in similar types of actions.
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