Definition of tragedy
Tragedy is a type of drama that is worthy of a serious subject about human suffering and related terrible events.

Greek tragedy
The term is of Greek origin and dates back to the 5th century BC. When assigned by the Greeks a specific form of plays performed at festivals in Greece. The local governments supported such plays, and the mood of the presentation of these plays was that of a religious ceremony, as the entire community attended the performances together with the grand priest.

The theme of The Matter of Greek Tragedies was mainly derived from Homer's Iliad and Odyssey which included the misfortunes of the heroes of history and religious mythology. The three prominent Greek playwrights were Aeschylus (525–456 BC), Sophocles (496–406 BC), and Euripides (480–406 BC) .

Aristotle's definition of tragedy
Aristotle defines tragedy in his famous Work Poetics as:

“The tragedy is an imitation of an act that is admirable, complete (consisting of an introduction, a middle section and an ending) and has greatness; in the language made pleasant, each of its kinds separated into different parts; performed by actors, not by narration; Effect the purification of such emotions through compassion and fear. ”

From the above definition we can understand the aim of Greek tragedies, namely the“ purification of such emotions ”, also called“ catharsis ”. Catharsis is a release of emotional tension after an overwhelming experience that restores or refreshes the mind.

English tragedy
Following the example of Seneca, the first English tragedy appeared in 1561, written by Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville. The play chose the story of a British king and his suffering at the hands of his two disobedient sons as its subject. The importance of the work lies in the fact that it transformed the style of English drama, from works of morality and mystery, to writing tragedies in the Elizabethan era. .Christopher Marlowe
Marlowe was the first English playwright worthy of the tradition of Greek tragedy. The characters in his tragedies are the great men of history, who were victims of their own fate. the playwrights, knew well the style of Greek tragedy and used various Greek themes but modified them for his own purpose. He intentionally violates the unity of action and mixes tragic with comic actions. Examples of tragedy written by Shakespeare include:

King Lear
Antony4 and Cleopatra Cressida
C. John Webster4 0a4Webster was a Jacobean playwright who modeled his tragedies on the Shakespearean model. Among his famous works are the following examples of tragedies:

Titus Andronicus
The White Devil
The Duchess of Malfi
D. Henrick Ibsen
He is known as "the father of realism". He was the creator of some of the popular tragedies known as "Problem Games". His famous works are:

A Dollhouse
Hedda Gabler
The Wild Duck
Emperor and Galilean
E.Arthur Miller
He is an American playwright and essayist. His famous works are:

All My Sons
Death of a Salesman
The Crucible
A View from the Bridge
The Outsiders
The Difference Between Greek and English Tragedies
We note the following differences between the tragedies of the Greek playwrights.Let multiple plots on one plot at the same time and develop subplots
Character Origins “great” characters were mortals who were equal to the gods in their meaning. Heroes from all walks of life
Subject matter Serious, treated in a dignified way, mix ed tragic with comic
(Modern playwrights argue that such a representation comes closer to life than ours Life is a mixture of happiness and unhappiness.)
Tmesis Tragic Flaw