Sarcasm is derived from the French word sarcasmor, and also from the Greek word sarkazein, which means "to tear the flesh" or "gnash the teeth." In a way, in simple words it means to speak bitterly. with the purpose of amusing and hurting someone, or some sector of society, simultaneously. For example:
"I did not attend the funeral, but I sent a nice letter saying I approved." (Mark Twain)
Types of sarcasm
Sarcasm often depends on the tone of voice. There are seven types:
Self-deprecating Sarcasm: This category of sarcasm expresses an exaggerated sense of inferiority and worthlessness. However, the tone of his speech has a marked bitterness.
Deadpan Sarcasm: He is expressed without emotion or laughter, making it difficult for the listener to judge whether the speaker is joking or mocking.
Polite sarcasm - A speaker is said to have uttered polite sarcasm when his listeners only realize that his polite comment was sarcastic after thinking about it.
Hateful sarcasm: This type of sarcasm makes people feel like hitting the speaker.
Manic Sarcasm: This type of sarcasm is expressed in an unnatural happy mood, making it appear as if the speaker has gone insane.
Angry Sarcasm: This type of sarcasm is primarily based on exaggeration and violent threats. although Brutus' actions in assassinating Caesar were definitely not honorable. His repetition of this phrase completely reverses the literal meaning of the phrase
Example # 2: Hamlet, Act 1 Scene 2 (by m Shakespeare)
"Savings, savings, Horace! Funeral baked meats coolly decorated the wedding tables. "
The most disturbing theme for Hamlet in this play is his mother's marriage to his uncle. While speaking to Horatio in a sarcastic way, Hamlet sums up the ridiculous issues using this statement.
Example # 3: Repairing walls (by Robert Frost)
"Good fences make good neighbors. ”
This line sarcastically points to two neighbors who have built a wall between them. However, this wall falls apart every winter, so the neighbors meet and fix it, hence they spend more time together at
Example # 4: Road not taken (By Robert Frost)
“Two roads diverged in a forest , and I,
, took the one less traveled by, and that has made the difference ”.
The poet is talking about two roads, one is not traveled by the people, and the other is chosen by the majority of the people. He had taken the road less traveled. Frost uses a sarcastic comment, who feels regret that he chose this path or path that made a difference
Example # 5: Sing rbury Tales (By Geoffrey Chaucer)
“There was a FRERE, a tramp and a merye,
A limitour, a man solemn full,
So much daliaunce and fair language.
He had many marriages
The young man was at his expense
Here Chaucer describes the character of the monk in a sarcastic way. He's a clergyman who takes bribes from wealthy people in town. He uses money he takes from confessions for happiness and women. and doesn't care about people.
Example 6: Romeo and Juliet (by William Shakespeare)
“Why are you Romeo?”
This is the central conflict in this piece when Juliet sarcastically asks Romeo why his name is Romeo, since she never is could be together because their families were enemies.
Function of sarcasm
Sarcasm can be used for many purposes. In most cases, however, it is used as a mask or scathe. Others use it as a defense mechanism. It is used when bitterness is difficult to express in a pleasant way, or when the goal is to say something without hurting anyone directly. The main purpose of sarcasm in literary works is to give flavor so that the stories appear real to readers.
Popular Literary Devices
- Ad Hominem
- Deus Ex Machina
- Double Entendre
- Flash Forward
- Half Rhyme
- Internal Rhyme
- Line Break
- Non Sequitur
- Pathetic Fallacy
- Poetic Justice
- Point of View
- Red Herring
- Tragic Flaw