Chiasmus Definition
Chiasmus is a rhetorical device in which two or more clauses are weighed against each other by reversing their structures in order to achieve an artistic effect.

Let's try to understand chiasmus using an example:

"Never let a fool kiss you or one Kiss that makes a fool of you. “

Please note that the second half of this sentence is an inverted form of the first half, both grammatically and logically. In the simplest sense, the term chiasmus applies to almost all "criss-cross" structures. and this is a concept that is common nowadays. In its strict classical sense, however, the function of chiasmus is to reverse the grammatical structure or notions of sentences, since the same words and phrases are not repeated.

The difference between chiasmus and antimetabolism
Chiasmus is different from antimetabolism. An antimetabolic is the repetition of words in consecutive sentences, but in reverse or transposed order. For example:

“You forget what you want to remember and you remember what you want to forget. “

Antimetabolic examples are similar to chiasmus in that they are characterized by the inversion of structure. However, in examples of chiasmus, the words and phrases are not repeated. Chiasmus and antimetabole are generally regarded by many critics as similar rhetorical tools.

Examples of chiasmus from the Greek sages
The use of chiasmus as a rhetorical device dates back to ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, and its traces have been found in ancient Sanskrit texts. , and also in ancient Chinese writings. However, the Greeks developed an unparalleled penchant for this device, making it an essential part of the art of prayer.

Example # 1: Aeschylus, 5th century B.
“It is not the oath that makes us believe man,
but man the oath. ”

Example # 2: Bias, 6th century B.
“ He loves as if one day you would hate,
and he hates as if one day you would love. ”

Example # 3: Socrates, 5th century B.
“ The bad live to eat and drink,
while the good eat and drink to live. "

Examples of Chiasmus from Literature
Example 1: Othello (by William Shakespeare)
" But oh what damn minutes say he says about
Who points, but doubts; Suspect but loves strongly. "

Example 2: Essay about man (by Alexander Pope)
" Its time is a moment and a point is space. “

Example 3: Do I love you because you are beautiful? (By Oscar Hammerstein)
“Do I love you because you are beautiful?
Or are you beautiful because I love you? ”

Example 4: Paradise Lost (by John Milton)
“ ... in his face
Divine compassion appeared visible,
Love without end and without measure of grace ... ”

Example 5: Quote (from Judith Viorst)
“Lust is what makes you do it again and again, even when you don't feel like being with each other. Love is what makes you want to be together over and over again, even when you don't feel like it. "

Example 6: Quote (from John Marshall)
" In the region of the blue grass the paradox
A was born:
The corn was full of grains
And the colonels full of corn. "

Example 7: Quote (from Alfred P. Solan)
" Some have the idea that the reason we throw things away so quickly in this country is because we have so much. The facts are exactly the opposite: the reason we have so much is simply because we dismiss things so easily. "That goes after him."

Example # 9: Quote (By Thomas Szaz)
"When Religion Was Strong And Science Weak ,
men took magic for medicine;
Now, when science is strong and religion weak,
men mistake medicine for magic. ”

The above discussion reveals that chiasm is a unique rhetorical device that writers employ to create a special artistic effect, in order to emphasize what they want to communicate In his treatise, Analyzing Prose, Richard A. Lanham presents his interesting point of view on chiasmus in the following words:

“By keeping the phrase But reversing its meaning, we use the power of our opponent to defeat him, just as a judo expert does. theory, 'Cannon entertains that theory because that theory entertains Cannon.' or of words about 'entertain' complicates the chiasmus here, but judo still prevails: Cannon is playing with the power of his own mind instead of discovering the secrets of the universe.
Catharsis Circumlocution