Statement Definition
When someone makes a statement by reversing their strong belief in it, as if it were true, even if it is not, they are making a statement. statement about a belief or fact. Often, it is without evidence or any support. Its purpose is to express ideas or feelings directly, for example, "I have put all my effort to complete this task today."

Statement types
The statement has four types, including:

Basic statement
It is a simple and direct statement to express feelings, opinions and beliefs such as:

“I wish I could have expressed this idea before, because now someone else has taken The credit".
"Excuse me, first I want to finish my work, then I'll go with you."
Emphatic statement
Conveys sympathy for someone, and generally has two parts: the first involves acknowledging the other person's feelings or situation, and the second is a statement that shows support for the other person's point of view, feelings, or rights. the other person, such as:

“I understand that you are busy, and so am I, but it is difficult for me to finish this project Therefore, I want you to help me complete this project.”
“I know this is making you angry and frustrating because you haven't received a reply yet. But I can help you by giving you an estimate of how long it might take. "
Escalating Assertion
It occurs when someone is unable to provide an answer to a person's basic assertions and therefore that person becomes stuck about him or her, such as:

" If you fail to do this by 6: Ending midnight tonight, II will engage the services of another worker. "
" I really want to end this point before you start yours. ”
Language Assertion
This is the first person pronoun“ I ”and is useful for expressing negative feelings. However, the emphasis on a person is constructively emphasized. Feelings of anger such as:

“If you speak hard, I cannot work with you because I feel angry. So I want you to speak well and then assign me a task. ”
“ When I don't get enough sleep, it affects my nerves and makes me feel irritable. That's why I try to go to bed earlier. “
Examples of the claim in the literature
Example 1: Animal farm (by George Orwell)
In the animal farm, pigs use the claim as a tool for propaganda throughout the novel. This is to weaken the position of other animals and prevent contradictions with their rules and conduct. In chapter seven, Squealer informs other animals that they don't have to sing the original anthem of the old Major's Beasts of England - a song that inspired the revolution in chapter one. Squealer claims:

"It is no longer needed, comrade ... In Beasts of England we expressed our longing for a better society in the days to come. However, this society has now been formed. This song clearly has no purpose. "

Look at his language, in which he gives them obvious information that they have already recognized and no one can argue against it. Hence, no one argued against his claim.

Example 2: Pride and Prejudice (by Jane Austen)
Elizabeth hides her surprise at the news of Darcy's plan to marry her. When Lady Catherine objects to this marriage, since the Bennets are poorly connected and their marriage would ruin Darcy's position in front of his friends and society, Elizabeth tries to defend her family background by claiming:

“I am a gentleman’s daughter . ”

In fact, she frees herself from the angry control of snobs like Miss Bingley, Mr. Collins and Lady Catherine and declares:

“ I am… determined. ”40a 4
Then he goes on to assert:

“… this way act that I believe represents my happiness without reference to you or a person who is so completely connected to me. "

Example # 3: Cherry Orchard (by Anton Chekov)
Trofimov and Lopakhin exchange spiked words, and Lopakhin calls Trofimov an" eternal student. "When Lopakhin asks Trofimov what he thinks of him, Trofimov responds that he considers Lopakhin as" a future millionaire "and" a beast of prey. ”Gayev then points to the conversation about pride that the two men had previously. poor ", they are in misery and" the only thing they can do is work. "Although he was pessimistic about the current situation of humans, however, he begins to feel optimistic about their future, he expresses this idea with assertion and reprimands the Russian intellectuals, who do not even know the meaning of work.

Example # 4: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
"I never offended you
in my life, never loved Cassio
But with as much guarantee from heaven
as I could love, I never gave him a sample."

In these lines, Desdemona makes a death claim that she is innocent, denying Othello's accusations. Yet blinded by emotion and furious at her, Othello is determined to kill her.

Affirmation function
The function of the affirmation is to make readers feel that they should not disagree or discuss what they read or hear; rather, they must accept the idea or notion as an indisputable fact. It has proven to be one of the best methods for writers to express their personal feelings, beliefs, and ideas directly. By using this technique, writers can defend others. feelings and rights if violated. This rhetorical style also expresses self-assertion and rational thinking of respect or personal worth. It is very common in various fields of life, such as literature, politics, advertising, and legal matters.
Context Metaphor